How The Six Degrees Phenomenon Has Changed Science


How The Six Degrees Phenomenon Has Changed Science

Thanks to Brilliant for supporting this episode
of SciShow. Go to to learn more. [♪ INTRO] Thanks to the internet, it’s possible to
instantly connect with people all over the globe. And thanks to social media, you can curate
a list of friends that can be hundreds, or even thousands, of
names long. All these connections make our world seem
pretty small. And the math has shown that it kind of is. You may have heard that any two people on
the planet are connected through only a small handful of intermediates,
usually six, hence the name for the phenomenon, the Six
Degrees of Separation. And it turns out that’s probably true. Sociologists and mathematicians have worked
together over the past few decades to determine exactly how connected the world is, and they
keep arriving at numbers around 6 or less. But that’s not even the coolest part. The mathematical models that explain how people
are connected, appropriately called Small World Networks,
don’t just apply to social interactions. They have uses and implications for everything
from the spread of epidemics, to the structure of the internet, and even
the neural networks that make up your brain. This idea of Six Degrees seems to first appear
in short story from 1929 where a character is challenged to find anyone
on Earth through a chain of at most five people. By the 1960s, scientists had started to get
in on the idea. The most famous experiment was conducted by
sociologist Stanley Milgram, yes, that Stanley Milgram. In 1963, the same year he tested people’s
obedience by seeing whether they’d shock others on
command, he sent the first chain letters. He picked people from several US cities and
asked them to forward the letters on with the intention of getting them to reach
a specific person. The experiment wasn’t hugely successful. Turns out people in the 60s didn’t like
responding to spam, either, but of the letters that did make it, the average
number of jumps needed was about 6. And that ‘six’ number has become totemic,
mostly thanks to a 1990 play called Six Degrees of Separation which was loosely
inspired by this idea. Of course, the play says everyone has at most
six connections in between them, and that might be a bit of a stretch. For example, in 2016, Facebook did a study
of the users on their network and found that the average number of friends
separating two active users was 3.5. But even though it’s the largest social
network, Facebook doesn’t come close to including
all of humanity, and 3.5 is an average. There could very well be people who you’d
need a dozen or more jumps to get to. The study didn’t try to pinpoint a maximum
number of degrees of separation. Still, even if six isn’t the upper limit,
the number is probably pretty small. We can also apply the Six Degrees concept
to collaboration networks, where the ties are stronger, people who have
actually worked with one another. The most famous example of this is the Six
Degrees of Kevin Bacon game: for any given actor, you name an actor they’ve
been in a film with, who’s been in a film with another actor,
who’s been in a film with another actor, until you get to Kevin Bacon. The number of steps needed is the person’s
Bacon number. For instance, Kevin Bacon and Viola Davis
were in the film Beyond All Boundaries, so she has a Bacon Number of 1. But Viola Davis was in Ender’s Game with
Stevie Ray Dallimore, who was in Paper Towns with John Green, who
faced off against Hank in a SciShow Quiz Show that I hosted, giving
me a Bacon number of 4! Bacon once famously claimed to have worked
with everyone in Hollywood, or someone who’s worked with them, hence
his central role in all this. And it turns out he wasn’t far off. Research has found he’s one of the most
connected actors in Hollywood. The vast majority of actors have a Bacon number
of less than 6, with an average of about 3. Scientists have a similar concept called the
Erdős number, where you work out how many scientific paper
collaborations you are from prolific Hungarian mathematician Paul
Erdős. Oh and if you’re the kind of overachiever
who likes to act and do science, then your Erdős-Bacon number is the sum of
the two numbers: Natalie Portman is 7, and Carl Sagan’s is 6. All of these fun examples illustrate how well-connected
our world is, but what they don’t tell you is what’s
going on under the hood, how such inter-connectedness happens. Even in this internet age, you tend to be
friends with people near you. And if that were always the case, it would take thousands of friendship steps
to reach around the world. But of course it’s not true. People do sometimes meet and form social bonds
with people from distant places. You may not be best friends with that one
French exchange student you met in school, but you definitely know them. And that one loose connection ties you to
a whole other country of people. In a 1973 paper, a sociologist called special
attention to these quote “weak ties”. He pointed out that the weakest connections
can sometimes be the most important. Like, in your friendship network, they might
be the ones that open you up to new ideas by giving you the perspective of a different
culture, or by introducing you to new people. But it would take another 25 years or so for the real importance of these so-called
weak ties to be revealed. You see, it wasn’t until the late 90s that
a pair of mathematicians created a model for this kind of network,
which they called a small world network. The researchers, Steven Strogatz and his PhD
student Duncan Watts, were inspired by the six degrees phenomenon, and wanted to understand where it comes from
mathematically. The tools they used are from the field of
math called graph theory, which looks at the different ways points can be connected
to each other in something called a network. For instance, let’s say you wanted to draw
a network representing the structure of a crystal, with points representing the atoms or molecules, and the lines between them representing chemical
bonds. The network would have lots of points that
are only connected to other nearby points. In other words, it would look very ordered. And on average, it would take a lot of jumps
to get from one side of the network to the other. By contrast, let’s say you wanted to draw
the network for something like Facebook, with points representing users, and lines
representing friendships. It would look more chaotic, random, and messy,
with lines going all over the place. But there would still be some structure to
it, for a couple reasons. Firstly, your friends are very likely to know
each other, because they have something in common: you. And secondly, people tend to be friends with
people who live near them, so you’d see a lot of locational clustering. So really, it would look a bit like the crystal
lattice, but with a few random jumps across the network
to faraway points. This small world model was designed to recreate
the structure and the messiness of a social network, all
before the rise of online social networks. And the technique they used to make the model
was simple: they started with an ordered, crystal lattice-like
network, and then gradually re-wired it. Specifically, their recipe was to take one
link on the ordered network, and randomly change one end of it to simulate
a person having a faraway connection, then repeat this multiple times. They didn’t care how strong the connection
was between the two points, just that there was one: your best friend and
that foreign exchange student count the same. And they found that it only took a small number
of re-wirings, just a handful of ‘weak ties’, to make the average path length between two
points drop drastically. Specifically, they proved that the average
number of jumps scaled logarithmically with the number of
points in the network. ‘Logarithmically’ is the mathematical
opposite of ‘exponentially’. If something grows logarithmically that means
it grows really slowly. So even a network of, say, seven billion humans
will have a tiny average path length, maybe under 10, thanks to a surprisingly small
number of weak ties. And recent studies have suggested that, with
modern technology, these so-called ‘weak’ ties aren’t even
all that weak. Maybe you keep in touch with that exchange
student over WhatsApp, so you know them better than you know your
neighbor! In addition to giving us a fun Hollywood trivia
game, the small world phenomenon has found uses
in a number of scientific fields. For instance, Watts and Strogatz showed how
diseases can spread more easily in a small world network because it’s easier
for the infection to reach faraway places quickly. It’s important for scientists to know this
sort of thing so they can model diseases more accurately, and that helps
them to work out where to deploy resources, and how to stop
a pathogen from spreading. And now that scientists are looking for them, it seems like these small world networks are
cropping up all over the place. In fact, Watts and Strogatz found that as
long as it’s possible to make any long-range connections in a network, the
resulting network was almost guaranteed to have small world properties. And that means understanding how small world
networks work is essential to understanding the behavior of these networks
and how signals travel through them. Computer scientists have found that the hyperlinks
between web pages look like this too, for example: almost any web page is only a
handful of clicks away from any other one. So understanding small world networks can
help scientists understand how information moves on the internet. And understanding these network properties can
help scientists understand biological systems, too. Take brains, for instance. Some researchers have claimed that the network
of neurons in vertebrate brainstems resembles a small world network, with lots
of clustering, and the odd link to faraway places. And that affects how signals travel through
the brain. One study showed that the small world networks
of neurons are better at rapidly synchronising activity across the
whole tissue because those ‘weak ties’ between distant regions help
signals spread far and fast. And it’s also been shown that neural activity
lasts longer in these networks, because it’s easier for a neuron that’s
been activated by a signal to be re-activated. In the end, models of the human mind may look
a lot like Kevin Bacon’s colleague network. As for the Six Degrees idea, well, it may
take a few more connections than that to reach some people on the planet, but you’re
probably about 6 degrees away from most people. The small world phenomenon reminds us that
everyone around us is closer to us than we think. Each person you walk past is a potential new
friend, and a potentially meaningful connection, helping to tie over seven billion humans into
one messy little network. We might not be able to draw out the whole
network for humans on this planet just yet, but computer scientists can do a lot of cool
things with neural networks. And if you want to understand how and why,
you might want to try out You see, Brilliant offers interactive courses
in math, science, engineering, and computer science. So whether you’re looking to brush up on
subjects you took years ago or learn something new, they’ve got you
covered. For example, their Artificial Neural Networks
course has everything you need to know about how these computer-generated
networks work. You can brush up on perceptrons or dig deep
into advanced network architectures, even when you’re on the go, because Brilliant’s courses can now be taken
offline on their new iOS app. And to sweeten the deal, the first 200 people
to sign up at will get 20% off an annual Premium subscription. So you can save money, sharpen your math and
science skills, and support SciShow all in one fell swoop. [♪ OUTRO]

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100 thoughts on “How The Six Degrees Phenomenon Has Changed Science”

  1. SciShow says:

    Go to to try their Artificial Neural Networks course. The first 200 subscribers get 20% off an annual Premium subscription.

  2. penguins forall says:

    It also applies to a vaccinated population protecting the unvaccinated as well.

  3. penguins forall says:

    Another kind of baffling way of thinking of small world networks is that is it not particularly sensitive to the number of individuals.

  4. penguins forall says:

    I've noticed at least when I get the chance to realize two friends who are mutual is that they themselves tend to be good friends to myself. When talking about just simple links between people the generalization of many clusters (cliches) and then far off links probably exaggerates most peoples actual experience. Because people who make good friends probably have many friends. That means even if you have two good friends and they only need be weakly friends with each other. That can also explain why people who seem to be in an inseparable bond with their cliche group also seem to know many others.

  5. Toure Hines says:

    Is brilliants logo a small world network 🤔

  6. DarkVortex97 says:

    I swear Strogatz is involved in everything :'D

  7. Yakov Weinberger says:

    Your missing sabbath numbers for musicians. My favorite erdos bacon sabbath number owner is ninja Brian of ninja sex party with a ebs# of 10

  8. Airik Luna says:

    I swear I know that guy.

  9. NamelessCruiser says:

    I think my brother has an Erdos-Bacon number around 5 or 6.

  10. Scott Peterson says:

    Kevin Bacon: “Hold my beer” 🍺😎

  11. Zhu Bajie says:

    If as projected for primate group size versus brain size that humans can track about 150 and assuming half you know only you do and no one else in your 150, it follows out of the human population of 7.7 billion, you come up with about 5.3 close to the figures you quote.

  12. NickTimesTwo says:

    Everyone reply to this and eventually two people will know each other

  13. John Dillinger says:

    Do DMT and you would understand this like i do, reality will not be the same, it would help too to have knowledge in math and statistics tho

  14. Random User says:

    My grandmother (who was once married to a U.S senator) has met several presidents. That means that I have three? degrees of separation from those presidents (I do not know which ones).
    And, my father met Jim Henson, as his father was close with Henson.
    And, my great-grandfather has an award in fracture mechanics named for him.

  15. HeartofTeFiti says:

    i feel like this explains how everyone started drawing that 'S' thing in grade school before social media was a thing.

  16. Kno Jones says:

    This is not well thought out.

  17. Wood 'n' Stuff w/ Steve French says:

    Is he wearing a yarmulke?

  18. Victor Avila says:

    Great! at last, a video about network science
    i´m studying this at the Physics Institute UNAM in the complex systems branch and loving it! my final degree project its going to be about this

  19. Joshua Read says:

    And every actor’s Nicholas Cage number is 1

  20. Tarik Tarilonte says:

    This is such an amazing explanation!

  21. Akinde Hanna says:

    This was fascinating.

  22. Joel Kain says:

    So, really, Matt Watson didn't expose anything that shouldn't have been entirely expected. Not only that, but if we're all just a few clicks away from ANY content, doesn't that exponentially increase the odds of unintentionally viewing illegal content?

  23. JustinnoVe says:

    well 6*8=42 so we need something with an 8 and the hitchhikers were right.

  24. athena8794 says:

    What about the Wikipedia Philosophy Phenomenon? If you go to any page on Wikipedia and click on the first hyperlink in the article body that isnt a proper noun, and keep doing that, eventually you WILL wind up on the page for Philosophy

  25. PARADOXICLES says:

    i dunno my bacon number…but i have a Matt Dillon number of 2.

  26. dj33036 .dj63010 says:

    What is on top of his head?

  27. Parker Johnson says:

    Used to do that on Wikipedia

  28. Phill Kern says:

    Here in New Zealand it's only 2 degrees of separation

  29. Peter Parker says:

    Now i can use this information to get back with my ex.

  30. toferj says:

    Is Michael's hair dyed or is he wearing a yamaka?

  31. jillhbaudhaan says:

    This was cool. I'm going to try using logarithmically in a non-scientific context. The co-authorship diagram looks like a strain of something that's going to bring about a dystopia.

  32. Saddie says:

    One of the BEST videos this channel has ever posted. That's saying something considering every video is so good.

    I wish I had a bunch of money to send to this channel through Patreon. Unfortunately I'm a student in debt. One day when I have enough money, I'll pay my dues for all this channel has taught me.

  33. a i says:

    Would it be helpful if I met him
    AND I was born in Sedgwick County? (Even though Kyra wasn't with him that day I met Kevin.)

  34. Angela Goodwin says:

    The best part of this chain, Karinthy who first wrote about this phenomenon was a comedian, and in his writings the six degree of separation only took one paragraph. Mind me, Karinthy had more better lines, in 1927 being divorce was rare, but he said it will be soon an everyday occurrence and families will have problem like his. He yelled to his wife, sweet heart my child and your child are beating our child. Also, his most popular story in Hungary is: I am explaining my school report card. With all this, I would like mention the fact, this Karinthy was Frigyes Karinthy, and his son Ferenc was a visionary too. He wrote a book about the underwater world where woman are the stronger genre and men are so small and suppressed they are only used for procreation. The book’s title is Traveling to Fa Re Mi Do. I say, if one can get it in English read it.

  35. Tommy Northwood says:

    As a Freemason, I can play 3 degrees. 😉

  36. Jhoffer Arroyo says:

    So basically The Script are part time scientists. 🤔

  37. Pierre Abbat says:

    How many degrees of separation are between a Pintupi and an Eskimo? Between me and a Sentinelese?

  38. Lee Meehan says:

    Michael Aranda just sounds like a good friend. Like his voice sounds very trustworthy.

  39. Melody Knight-Brown says:

    when i was in hs my friend showed me this wikipedia game called 6 clicks to jesus, where you would go to wikipedia, click on random article, and then have six hyperlink clicks to get to the page for jesus.

  40. Hugh o'donnell says:

    So that's why No. 6 was in The Village

  41. Strave says:

    How dare you assert that my brain has odd connections.

  42. Wild Turtle says:

    Person with no friends would have infinite number of connections needed for connecting to other person. If one such person exists than the average would be also infinite. That's why extremes are usually excluded in studies

  43. Joseph Kania says:

    Who or what crapped on his head?

  44. Resplendent Moron says:

    No matter how connected we all get to each other, none of us are connected to the Sentinel Islanders.

  45. saph says:

    the kevin bacon thing reminds me of that jackfilms recommended videos challenge

  46. Kat Franks says:

    My bacon number is 3! My stepmom is related to Kiefer Sutherland who was in Flatliners with Kevin Bacon!

  47. Sophia B says:

    I am 4 degrees from Kevin Bacon!

  48. Zytran L says:

    I wonder which people are the most connecting ones.
    The people who connect one community to another, one country to another.
    I kinda get a general idea of who those could be like travellers, famous people..etc.

  49. Twinrehz says:

    The problem with using facebook as a network, is it's unreliable. Some people will indiscriminately add anyone as their facebook-friend, bots are generated all the time that send out friend requests to as many as they can find, and as I mentioned, there are plenty of those that will just flat-out accept those friend request without a second thought (tho some of those might be bots as well).

  50. antiisocial says:


  51. Nafrost says:

    With all of those “I’m connected to this celebrity with only 2-4 degrees”, you really see how connected our small world is.

  52. Gyrre says:

    Sounds like a paradigm.

  53. Madhup Joshi says:

    6 degrees of separation experiment had very few participants and the conclusion could not be verified

  54. Franlu Gauto says:


  55. Etceterotic says:

    The college that I transferred out of had Oprah Winfrey as the commencement speaker for my then prospective grad year. It means that I have an Oprah number of 2. And if I had several hundred thousands more dollars, it could have been 1.

  56. BhadBhris says:

    I know someone with an Erdös-Bacon number of 5 or 6 which he is very proud of

  57. TTMR1986 says:

    My Bacon number is also 4

  58. Beetlejuice699 says:

    My bacon number is how many strips I can eat before I die.

  59. waqar_asgar__g says:

    this is the first time i understood the meaning of logarithmicly" so thankyou

  60. Vitringur says:

    "Facebook doesn't come close to including all of humanity"

    It has 2,3 milliard active users. I would say that comes pretty darn close.

  61. Deadite says:

    I just realized my Bacon Number is 5

    During a field trip to Parliament Hill, I once

    shook hands with (1)

    Former Canadian prime minister Jean Chretien

    who once met (2)

    Current PM Justin Trudeau

    was in The Great War (3)

    Arthur Holden

    was in
    Stonewall (4)

    Matt Craven

    was in
    A Few Good Men (5)

    Kevin Bacon

  62. Gerry Bird says:

    Samuel L. Jackson has to have the lowest number of connections between every actor. Thats like Ed Norton, Clint Eastwood, Sylvester Stallone, Wesley Snipe, Ron Howard, or Dean Martin(in his day), These guys have worked with everyone or a link between the people they worked with to just about anyone.

  63. Valeria Vagapova says:

    "yes, THAT Stanley Milgram"
    Wait, what are we supposed to know him for? Never heard this name before tbh, seems like I missed the memo

  64. Martin Araka says:

    Logarithmic is the opposite of exponential which means it grows slowly. I just learnt something new.

  65. Gigaheart says:

    Are you trying to tell me I'm 6 people away from knowing someone like Jeff Bezos or Bill Gates?

  66. nico kelley says:

    my pope number is like, 3 or 4

  67. kunairuto says:

    Strogatz is responsible for my favorite mathematical text, Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos.
    Highly recommend!

  68. Kevin Benoit says:

    I know someone in japan, so I guess that raises some Japanese peoples’ bacon score 😂

  69. Twisty Sunshine says:

    My aunt met Eddie Murphy in an elevator once. So my Murphy number is 2

  70. NYR144 says:

    6 degrees of Kevin bacon

  71. Mike D says:

    Facebook his a horrible way to study this. Most people do not know and have not actually met most of their facebook "friends". It cant give any real world data.

  72. Alpinex105 says:

    I hate how YouTube science shows use the word "science".

  73. Damon Axelrod says:

    how can this effect space-time through entangled particles?

  74. RadicalxEdward says:

    I wonder if anyone has ever tried to use the 6 degrees of separation to actually help their career or something. Like if someone in the comments wanted to meet Neil DeGrasse Tyson, if they could actually get that to happen just through a connection like this.

  75. Windkisssed says:

    Great segue!!

  76. theindian mom says:

    Oh thank the universe you fixed your hoodie string 🤣

  77. johntauren says:

    I've figured I'm only three degrees of separation from any Star Trek actor, and only three degrees from the Queen of England.

  78. Aaron Brekon says:

    K serously you shouod of started with the ending first, i had no idea what the f you were talking about until you stopped rambling about implications and started actually explaining what it actually is

  79. Aaron Brekon says:

    Its a form of pride, explaining things as if we know whats actually happening( its why i couldnt understand you for the first two thirds of yhe video). As opposed to understanding that everything changes and there might never going to be a concrete answer to whats going on in the universe. All were doing is aquiring data. The only way ypto increase knowledge is to expand thinking in the form of pi or phi, so that it can have unlimited branching. Its the science of God in a nutshell.

  80. Aaron Brekon says:

    You can never explain something correctly, without the idea of the whole in mind. When you explain only an aspect of something, not in relation to anything else, its like saying Hey! That chicks hot! In the sense that its meaningless unless you can compare this to other events that are happening. Why doesnt anyone in the world seem to make coorelations like i do? How come so many people have taken the blue pill!

  81. smol mean trans wife says:

    What if I’m on North Sentinel Island?

  82. smol mean trans wife says:

    My Bacon Number is Ten, because that’s the number of strips I;ll be havin for breakfast! Ha! Ha!…

  83. Lordious says:

    Jokes on you, I don't have friends HAHA!!!

  84. melmn2002 says:

    I've got a Bacon number of 2, as my cousin was in a movie with him 😀

  85. Federico Jimbo Smithson says:

    (singing) It's a small world after all.

  86. Raymond Licon says:

    What is my Micheal Aranda number? Hey Ms Arándanos muy kindergarten teacher in 1975. Lol

  87. Jaren Cascino says:

    Just for future reference it would’ve been nice if u could explain the six degrees phenomenon like everyone knows nothing cuz I was confused at first

  88. Fools Gold Found says:

    This is horseshit and this guy is a douchbag

  89. Josh Woodferd says:

    This kind of stuff always fascinates me. An instructor of mine brought it up once that he was 6 degrees away from Kim Jong Un, and we called BS.
    He and some friends had gone to Mongolia a few years prior for a trip, their tour guide was married to someone who's sister was married an escapee of North Korea, who's family member was a party member.

  90. Katy Bechníková says:

    Showing this to people who don't care about problems on the other side of the world.

  91. Pulser21 says:

    Does it bother anyone else that his hoodie strings are not the same length

  92. Sajad Ali says:

    I watched whole video but unfortunately I didn’t understand a single idea. maybe it is new thing for me.

  93. Michael Farrell says:

    You just know Zuckerberg has that Andy Lamb image framed on a wall

  94. KevinPlayz says:

    I hated sociology at school and this just cements how bad I am at this…

  95. The Strangler says:

    I dont get this…

  96. Sayan guria says:

    If CNN see this they will make another report how close is Trump with Putin

  97. R T says:

    it's been a while, aranda

    you're getting wider

  98. Sean Draco says:

    Well I only talk to one person basically. Now if you used pbs YouTube channels you'd reach me that day.. I'm a hermit 🙂

  99. H R Holden says:

    My best friends mom went on a blind date with one of Albert Einstein's nephews while in college. Being only 4 degrees away from Einstein makes my head spin, considering all the people that he knew. I 'could' be only 6 or 7 steps from every person on the planet. Mind utterly blown!

  100. Gerard Sanford says:

    The number of degrees of separation for any two things in this Universe is 0. Each "thing" in the Universe will have knowable degrees of separation from any other particular thing only by applying specific parameters, like physically touching or communicating with directly. It seems that all interactions occur strictly as the result of a resonance of attraction between electrical and magnetic frequencies. I'm pretty sure that tuning forks not only vibrate when the sound frequency they are tuned for happens to pass through them but they actually attract that frequency. It's easier, in my belief, for a neuron to be reactivated by a signal because the initial activation will inevitably adjust the structure(which is a standing wave) geometrically to be more finely tuned to vibrations of that signal because it's frequency that determines the geometry of all electrical structures and all matter is an electrical structure.
    I say that to say this having given my reasoning to be validated, rejected or accepted but to be understood that the point to be made is not of poetic inspiration but about what can be rationally seen. We individually determine what is attracted into our lives and what is the effect of it. If we react to the negative experiences that we have attracted with negative emotion and thoughts, then we are fine tuning our structures to be even more receptive to the same. Many of these structures and can be specifically named in part as the enzymes of the mitochondria, the ganglion or ganglia around our glands, DNA, neurons… that's all I know off hand. We choose the frequency that flows through all of the receptive structures of the body and mind and so we are capable of changing their structure and the "things", like experiences, that they attract.
    No person is to blame for their environment if it is seen as negative because these individual environments are the consequence of the frequencies of the whole and are inevitable outside of conscious decision. Consciousness is demonstrated by it's ability to deviate particles from their otherwise inevitable position. All irrational decisions can be seen as unconscious because their reasoning is based upon paradigms learned by observing others mostly before 7 years old. When we don't pause and consider our reasoning for acting or reacting then we are simply following inevitable choices that have been predetermined by a child most likely. I believe that the basis for all decisions should be the Golden rule and I believe Science has evidenced this hypothesis greatly.
    We can see the Truth of the Golden rule simply by observing that the seed makes a tree and the tree many new seeds and so on, the tree of today is but a continuation of the first seed and all that came before it. We are all but a continuation of the first Seed of Life and a part of that very seed here in the present. When we change our frequency by rational choice then our "cluster" that we have been entangled with will become a different cluster. Changed from within or moved away from by degree to be joined again when the trees have learned of the seed they still be. Hideehoh and Heedeehee!

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