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Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply! (Updated)

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Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply! (Updated)


Captions are on! Click the CC button at bottom right to turn off. Follow us on Twitter (@AmoebaSisters) and Facebook! Have you ever looked down at your leg or your
arm to find some cut and you have no idea where it came from or how you got it? So you
put a bandage on it and a few days later, it’s gone. It’s all healed, and you don’t
even think anything of it of this amazing process that causes this to happen. Or let’s say
you’re looking at your nails and you notice they’re a lot longer than the last time you cut them. Or let’s say you’re looking in the mirror
and you notice that you are a lot bigger than you were when you were five years old. What
do all of these things have in common? One major thing they both have in common is
mitosis. Mitosis is a type of cell division done by
most of your body cells and it’s really important for your cells to divide. If they didn’t divide, you wouldn’t grow. I mean, how do you grow if you can’t make more cells, right?
So one reason why you’re bigger than you were when you were 5 is mitosis. Mitosis also is
great for repair of damage. If you have some kind of accident like when we were talking
about that cut on your arm or leg, well you want to make sure it can get repaired well so you have to make more cells to do that. Mitosis is great for that. Now it’s really important
to understand what it is not—mitosis is not a process that makes sperm or eggs
cells, because that’s something different called meiosis, which sounds like mitosis…unfortunately,
but it is a different process. Mitosis is done to produce body cells. Mitosis makes identical cells, that is
the goal, identical cells. So if you’re trying to make more skin cells, to replace
worn out or damaged skin cells, you don’t want to start suddenly making stomach cells there.
That would be ridiculous! You want to make sure you have identical cells replacing what
was lost, so mitosis makes identical cells. It’s a really important thing. Now, it’s
also important to understand that your cells are not dividing all the time. If all they
did was divide, it would just be rapid crazy growth. In fact, this is kind of what cancer
is. Cancer is uncontrolled cell growth. We have a clip on the cell cycle and what the
cell is usually doing most of its daily life, which is actually a phase called interphase
where it’s growing and replicating its dna and carrying out its daily cell functions.
That’s where cells spends most of their time in respect to the whole cell cycle. Mitosis is a very short amount of time
in respect to the whole cell cycle. But mitosis is a critical process because this is where
it is going to divide and make more cells. Before we get into the steps of division,
it’s really important to understand that your cells have something inside them – an
organelle called the nucleus. And the nucleus holds your DNA. DNA is really important because
it’s your genetic information. And if you’re going to make more cells, you need to have
the same DNA in those new cells as you did in your original cells. You want it to be
identical, no mistakes. Very important. The problem is you’ve got a LOT of DNA.
And we’ve got to get that DNA into the new cells using mitosis. So there has to be a
better way to organize that DNA. Well, what actually happens is that DNA can be organized
into these condensed units called chromosomes. Chromosomes are made of DNA and protein. You’ve
probably heard before that humans have 46 chromosomes. That means 46 chromosomes are
found in most human body cell nuclei. What are nuclei? Well it’s the plural of nucleus.
You don’t say nucleuses; you say nuclei. Well in the nuclei, there are 46 chromosomes. Organizing
DNA into condensed chromosomes makes it a lot easier to move over when you’re
making new cells. So if you have 46 chromosomes in a human body cell, you have to duplicate those chromosomes in interphase before mitosis starts. That basically means
you’re duplicating your DNA, since chromosomes are made of DNA and protein. You have to do this before mitosis starts, because if you’re going to make an identical cell that has 46 chromosomes just like the original, well it makes sense you have to duplicate the genetic material before splitting. So if you look at our cell cycle video clip we talk about interphase. That’s a stage where most of the time, cells are spending their time. They’re actually duplicating their DNA
during that time. So ready for the tricky part? Because we tend to count chromosomes by the
number of centromeres present, when the 46 chromosomes duplicate, we still say there
are 46 chromosomes as the sister chromatids are still attached and we’re counting by
centromeres. So 46 chromosomes here, they replicate in interphase, and you still have
46 chromosomes in this picture. But you went from 46 to 92 chromatids. We have a video
explaining that in more depth and how that factors in for mitosis. Ok so now we can get right into mitosis. I like to tell students to remember PMAT. It’s a little acronym that helps you remember.
The P is for prophase. The M is for metaphase. The A is for anaphase. The T is for telophase.
So remember: PMAT. The stages in order. The very first step is prophase. Prophase
because it’s the beginning step, the nucleus is still there and it’s going to go away
later on but this is a stage where it’s actually still there. The chromosomes are visible; in fact, we say they’re condensing which means they are thickening and visible. The next stage is metaphase. M for metaphase,
but I also like to remember M for middle because in this stage the chromosomes line
up in the middle of the cell. The nucleus has been disassembled, it’s no longer there
so we’ve got the chromosomes in the middle waiting there. Next the A is for anaphase. In anaphase, I
like to think as the A for “away.” The chromosomes move away, they are moving to opposite sides of the cell, so they are moving towards the poles of the cells. Now one thing to point
out, these chromosomes…they’re not moving by themselves, they actually have something
called spindles. These spindles are fibers that help move the chromosomes to the ends.
Kind of helps them move along. The last stage of mitosis—think T is for
telophase. In telophase, the chromosomes are actually at the complete opposite ends and
new nuclei are forming on each side to make these two new cells. The nuclei are starting to surround the chromosomes on both sides. I like to think the T is for “two”
because you can really see in this step that the end goal is going to be two cells and in the human body, they’re each going to have 46 chromosomes. And, again, remember, they are identical. Cytokinesis is responsible for the final separation
into two cells by splitting the cytoplasm, which completes after the PMAT mitosis stages. So why did all of matter? Without understanding
cell division, we wouldn’t understand how growth and repair happens—because they both
require more cells to be made. Understanding mitosis is also very important for cancer research
too. Cancer itself is uncontrolled cell growth – so in other words, uncontrolled mitosis.
Well, that’s it for the amoeba sisters and we remind you to stay curious.

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100 thoughts on “Mitosis: The Amazing Cell Process that Uses Division to Multiply! (Updated)”

  1. Amoeba Sisters says:

    Yay, here's our updated mitosis video! We appreciate the feedback we get for what we need to clarify: (1) We mention mitosis as "a type of cell division." To be specific, it's a division happening within the cell – in the nucleus. But we do not introduce the nucleus until later on in video. Mitosis is specifically the division happening of the nucleus whereas cytokinesis follows to do the actual splitting of the cell (mentioned at 7:30). (2) Our video is intended to focus on animal cells (as drawn) – specifically human cells – as we use human chromosome numbers. We wish we had clarified that more as we appreciate the feedback that the statements, "Mitosis makes body cells. Meiosis makes gametes." has some big exceptions such as plants. (3) In metaphase, we do not draw a nucleus (6:09), because we mention it already has been disassembled. Disassembly of the nuclear membrane (envelope) occurs at the end of the previous stage. Many texts will state this is during prometaphase, a stage in between prophase and metaphase. In this short video, we do not include prometaphase. We only mention that the nucleus is no longer there by the time it's metaphase. (4) Notice our illustration in anaphase also includes a text box that says "sister chromatids separate" at 6:37. It's important to understand that chromosomes are moved "away" in anaphase, but as the text box notes, realize they are separated by the pulling apart of sister chromatids. This is especially important when comparing mitosis to meiosis I—as you can see our comparison video (which has more detail) here: https://youtu.be/zrKdz93WlVk

  2. bear _32324 says:

    Supeeerrrrrrr helpfull

  3. Stephen Manjelo says:

    My test is loki tommorrow I am trying everything 😂😂

  4. Cara McQ says:

    Have never understood mitosis but now I do!!!!!

  5. Luca Ford says:

    my friend taught it to me as Pass Me A Taco Chief. dumb as hell but its stuck.

  6. Fma_Kla_ says:

    This is the best video for mitosis EVER

  7. tina lasagna says:

    Such a great video n I understand better than what my teacher taught me abt mitosis

  8. Nanii Lepiz Leon says:

    Dumb

  9. xOLuca MagneticOx says:

    Me: has my bio exam tomorrow
    Mom: Don't get distracted by the computer
    Me: Okay, but what if I got distracted by videos of biology on the computer?

    rewatches videos my bio teacher has shown us five hundred times in class

  10. Nicholas Guzman says:

    Nick

  11. El hachemi Zaid says:

    Franchement c’est seule vidéo que j’ai trouvée montrant la différence des nomenclateur des chromosomes avant et apres l’interphase ,
    Ca m’apparaît claire maintenant , merci !

  12. Wyatt Jones says:

    HEHE XD

  13. JK’s Queen says:

    Oh my god thank you so much 😊! I literally wrote 3 pages of A4 paper 📝 of this video! I understood everything. Thank you so much! ❤️

  14. Charles Kelley says:

    tis is garbage

  15. Janet López says:

    ARMYS here? DNA like the song :v

  16. Doge 821 says:

    0:35
    But im 4

  17. SUPAH POTATO says:

    this video is much better than all the other explanation videos of cells! thx alot!

  18. Sophia Roberts says:

    who is here cramming before the biology eoc?

  19. Sophia Roberts says:

    Prophase – chromosomes are Phat
    Metaphase – Middle
    Anaphase – Away
    Telophase – Two
    Cytokinesis – Clevage furrow

    maybe this will help someone 🙂

  20. Dipanbita Kashyap says:

    Thank you amoeba sisters
    I love your the way of remembering the things or steps

  21. Jallen says:

    Jallen, shhhh

  22. Gigi with an H says:

    Thank you so much

  23. prince ghattamaneni says:

    Thanks, I can finally get 90% on my tests.

  24. Lady Jiss says:

    My teacher mr speece makes us what this……. it’s awful

  25. Nosonic 64 says:

    Another student reporting for duty

  26. Maddie :3 says:

    Studying for my EOC's! Watching this video, I understand it A LOT more than when I first learned it! Thanks! 😊

  27. RedLemon says:

    Guys pls sub to my channel thank you 🙂 also nice vid, i learned alot.

  28. Caiden-Lee Goode says:

    This is all watched by stupid kids watching this to impress there 2nd grade science teachers or actual teachers showi g this so they dont actually have to teach.

  29. JennFlProfile Updated says:

    YouAreawesome!!!!thiswayofwriting,firstitwasfornotThestalker?movementthingsAndrecentlybecauseitcanwritequickerandmoreSocanconnectyoumore!love

  30. Marcela Patiño says:

    😍

  31. Xim Ruiz says:

    Thank you very much for this! I was looking for a non-typical meiosis video, because I'm more of a visual person and the drawings and the acronyms really helped me out! <3

  32. Ranbir Singh says:

    A VERY WELL ORGANISED VIDEO ..HUH GREAT UNDERSTANDING THANK YOU SOOO MUCH KEEP UPLOADING MORE

  33. Josh Patra says:

    Good luck on your tests y'all cries about finals tmrw

  34. ER!S _ says:

    i love the font you use on your videos. Round, sans-serif fonts are easier for people w dyslexia to read. it's a small thing, but i appreciate it

  35. Joy Bhungane says:

    I have a physics test tomorrow and I’m sitting here watching this at 1 am 🙁

  36. Kendyl.s says:

    For someone who doesn't understand an ounce of biology at all, i'm telling you, THIS SAVED MY GRADE! I learned a semesters worth of information in 8 minuets. Can we all get a round of applause for the Amoeba Sisters?!?!?!? (so did the meiosis one. make sure you check it out)

  37. Anna Tanigaki says:

    this is so helpful thank you!

  38. BTS TXT says:

    Thank you🙏❤️

  39. Nightmare Playz says:

    My teacher loves you

  40. Hazz FN says:

    sub to me

  41. Lee Dgh says:

    Thank you so mich for this

  42. Birdie says:

    i love you

  43. TN Reyezz says:

    This is really going to help me out for my exam!

  44. Caleb Kim says:

    She sounds like Erin from The Office

  45. TANU SINGH says:

    I thought she was going to say that after seeing in the mirror you realize that you are a lot bigger than the last time you yourself… Lol…

  46. afeera ansar says:

    thank you a million times for this omg

  47. Dianna Roldan says:

    When instead of studying for your bio final you come and binge watch the amoeba sisters 😂

  48. Youssef says:

    thank you! this is the only thing i didnt understand for my final tmrw and now i do

  49. DaCoolBaby says:

    Who has a final tomorrow?

  50. Gold says:

    thank you, i have a quiz tmr

  51. Jenn X Alyx says:

    haha, my teacher showed us this video to explain about mitosis and meiosis earlier lmao

  52. Daniel C says:

    My 6 year old daughter asked me about what causes cancer and I felt it would be important to first help her understand mitosis. I showed her this video which helpfully introduced what cancer is as well. Hopefully she will attain her goal of being a princess/doctor. Thanks. 😀

  53. Ashley Sheena says:

    This funny and informative….. I can learn for my science test TMRW and also laugh!!!! U brightened up my mood . THANK YOU!!!😁😁😁

  54. Thomas Canning says:

    is 6:57 supposed to be a star wars reference

  55. RUST Shadows says:

    Thx

  56. Geburah S says:

    Well done and very creative. Check out International BioHub for anyone looking for a nice site to network with other biologists. It's a business run by graduate students studying biology courses. Check it out and register for access and services. You can even build your own profile and network. This might even supplement your business!

    @t is the link

  57. Jeremy Cornwell says:

    Dog mite cells and me, don't mix.

  58. Yaswanth Akhil says:

    Dislikes are from biology teachers….. Because they were jealous 😁

  59. benzo says:

    this is the cutest thing ever

  60. Muskan Siddikee says:

    Thanks for providing Free education
    Love from India

  61. Pickle Rick says:

    Who's in mr de alwes' class

  62. day_thick says:

    Im actually just here to understand a meme I saw sksksk

  63. Theodora says:

    thank u so much for this video..finally after years it makes sense ..
    it took me a day to understand by heart all the interphare and mitosis… im so happy
    i tought ill never make it

  64. Moeketsi Nxumalo says:

    no no no no no, this came in too clutch 😔

  65. Kids Talent says:

    hey Amoeba sisters,
    I love your science video. Whenever I am confused, I see your video and I understand everything. Continue to make science fun

  66. Lalala Lalala says:

    I hate biotech.

  67. Jasper Williams says:

    you suck

  68. Stephanie Utley says:

    I have watched so many of your videos this semester for Biology. Thank you for helping me succeed by breaking the concepts down.

  69. Joaquin Paolo Ramirez says:

    homework but yes

  70. Youtuber Cottonian says:

    Watching it in 2019 in college for a test which is in 8 hours. YOU GUYS ARE ANGELSSSSSSSSSSSS and my saViOrSSSSSSS

  71. Gracie T says:

    what did one daughter cell say to the other daughter cell when she stepped on her?

    mitosis.

  72. mlt_ fngrl says:

    How ironic that I just watch here cuz it's hard to understand in my sci book and srsly I have a test tomorrow OMG THANK YOU AMOEBA SISTERS

  73. Apple Mae Gonzales says:

    Thank you so much you're so good at explaining. I want you to be my teacher.

  74. ¿? Plays Games says:

    Thanks so much!!!! Glad I found you amoeba sisters!!! U make this so much easier to comprehend!!!!!

  75. Adrian Sanchez says:

    You can also say, I Put My Arm There. Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telaphase

  76. lmaso73 says:

    stop pls

  77. Simon says kokobop says:

    I love this channel so much
    😊

  78. TEMPORARY قنبلة says:

    So if i have 12 chromosomes im not human pfft thats humanism

  79. magic maniac says:

    I'm here because of toilet Quagmire

  80. Mahmoud Abdul-Jawad says:

    When ur 5 years old and watching this

  81. Nafz Hye says:

    I P M T C I Pray Magrib at Ten o'clock

  82. Ponchitocore GMR says:

    what a beatiful video it makes everything so easy to understand, keep going girls!!!

  83. jennifer vides says:

    Mitosis =
    My Toes sis 💀💀💀

  84. Ammar Riaz says:

    I am five….

  85. Teevra Sharma says:

    Veryyyyyy NYC video

  86. Maya McColly says:

    Me, an extremely short person, realizing I’m not much taller than I was when I was 5… I’m in 8th grade

  87. Lockie Smith says:

    gday comments

  88. Parul chirag shah says:

    Loved ur explaination….amoeba sisters❤
    Thanks

  89. Slav_king says:

    byee falica

  90. Hat Kid says:

    My toes is!

  91. Miz Xox says:

    College student here thanks you

  92. AR#Reaper Diz says:

    So what's the difference between chromosome and chromatid?
    It's urgent got test tomorrow!!

  93. Henry Navarro says:

    Yeet didnt listen in class and i have a quiz on this topic in yhe next 2 hours.wish me luck

  94. rebe1 eon says:

    My toe says

    Ouch you darn human stop slamming me on that chair every morning

  95. Sheena Detablan says:

    Your tosis?

  96. Tega D says:

    Mitosis 5:25

  97. Cody Cadenhead says:

    😓

  98. Dilen YASAMANA says:

    I’m gay ang gay

  99. Joshua Robert Rentuyza says:

    Thank You amoeba sister!!! I understand you vids much more than my teach😅

  100. Lester Crest says:

    Or you could just do this:

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    oo

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    oooo

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    0000

    oooooooo

    OOOOOOOO

    00000000

    oooooooooooooooo

    OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

    0000000000000000

    ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

    OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

    0000000000000000000000000000000

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